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and evidence basing
have become watchwords in psychotherapy since the 2000s. Psychotherapy has clearly been shown to be effective, and far more so than placebos, (positive expectation effects). However, it has not been demonstrated that any particular method, (for example Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Psychodynamic Therapy), is more effective, overall, than any other.

We do know that the therapist’s role
is extremely central, with around 40 per cent of outcomes determined by this factor. Specific psychotherapy techniques, (for example hypnosis), accounts for some 15 per cent. Insufficient research exists on remaining factors’ percentage shares. What needs to be done now is research into which techniques work best for given conditions. We need to do this to ease human suffering, time and money.

The Delphi Institute’s Pleroma research group
is a network that has been established to do just this. Pleroma has links with universities and is made up of psychotherapists with extensive clinical and research experience, many of whom have doctorates.

References :
Barlow, D. H. (2008) (4th Ed.). Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. A Step-by Step Treatment Manual. New York: The Guilford Press.
Belli, R. F. (2012) (Ed.). True and False Recovered Memories. Springer New York.
Cain, D. J. & Seeman, J. (2001). Humanistic Psychotherapies: Handbook of Research and Practice
Castonguay, L. G. & Beutler, L. E. (2006). Principles of Therapeutic change That Work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castonguay, L. G., Muran, J. C., Angus, L. E. & Hayes, J. A. (2010). Bringing Psychotherapy Research to Life: Understanding Change Through the Work of Leading Clinical Researchers
Chambless, D. L. & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 7-18
Cooper, M. (2008) Essential Research Findings in Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Facts are Friendly
Cooper, M., Watson, J. C. Holldampf, D. (2010). Person-Centered and Experiential Therapies Work: A reviewof the Research on Counselling. Psychotherapy and Related Practices by Contributors
Elliott, R. (1998). Editors introduction: A guide to the empirically supported treatments controversy. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 115-170
Kazdin, A. Treatment outcomes, common factors and continued neglect of mechanisms of Change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2005; 12:184-8
Kazantzis, N., L´Abate, L. & Gerard, F. (2010). Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy: Understanding Change Through the Work of Leading Clinical Researchers
Lambert, M. J. (2004). (5th Ed.). Bergin and Garfield´s Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Levy, R., Ablon, S. J. & Kächele, H. (2011). Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research: Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence (Current Clinical Psychiatry)
Loewenthal, D. (2007). Case Studies in Relational Research: Qualitative Research Methods in Counselling and Psychotherapy
Luborsky, E. & Luborsky, L. (2006). Research and Psychotherapy: The Vital Link
McLeod, J. (2010). Case Study Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy
McLeod, J. (2010). Qualitative Research in Counselling and psychotherapy
Meltzoff, J. & Kornreich, M. (2008). Research in Psychotherapy
Midgley, N., Anderson, J. Grainger, E. & Nesic-Vuckovic, T. (2009). Child Psychotherapy and Research
Orlinsky, D. Raennestad, M. Willutzki, U. Fifty years of psychotherapy-outcome research: Continuity and change. In: Lambert, M. (ed). Bergin and Garfield´s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2004. p. 307-90.
Report of the Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice, July 1, 2005. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. http://www.apa.org/practice/ebpreport.pdf.
Roth, A. & Fonagy, P. (2004). What Works for Whom? A Critical review of Psychotherapy Research
Western, D. Novotny, C. The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin. 2004; 130: 631-63.
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